Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a colourless liquid, slightly more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen–oxygen single bond). It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent and disinfectant. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry. Its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond.

Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and slowly decomposes in the presence of base or a catalyst. Because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is typically stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases.

Parameter Value

Chemical formula

H2O2

Molar mass

34.0147 g/mol

Appearance

Very light blue color; colorless in solution

Odor

slightly sharp

Density

1.11 g/cm3 (20 °C, 30% (w/w) solution )
1.450 g/cm3 (20 °C, pure)

Melting point

−0.43 °C (31.23 °F; 272.72 K)

Boiling point

150.2 °C (302.4 °F; 423.3 K) (decomposes)

Solubility in water

Miscible

Solubility

soluble in ether, alcohol
insoluble in petroleum ether

Vapor pressure

5 mmHg (30 °C)

Acidity (pKa)

11.75

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−17.7·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)

1.4061

Viscosity

1.245 cP (20 °C)

Dipole moment

2.26 D

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